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Policy for use of blood Kell Positive


javvcr
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18 hours ago, Malcolm Needs said:

Sorry John, but you are incorrect - and correct!  The first antigen within the Kell Blood Group System is, under the ISBT numerical system 006 001 (006 being the number of the Blood Group System, and 001 being the first antigen within that system) and, indeed, the 006 is never used in terms of Blood Group Systems (except on computers), and the "00" bit of the "001" is redundant, so you would think that K is equivalent to K1, but it isn't!  To quote from Reid ME, Lomas-Francis C, Olsson ML.  The Blood Group Antigen FactsBook."  3rd edition, 2012, Academic Press, page 3-7, "It is incorrect to refer to the K and k antigens as, respectively, K1 and K2; in the numerical terminology they should be referred to as KEL1 and KEL2."

Annan, please see this quote from above.

K1 is incorrect (as quoted from The Blood Group Antigen FactsBook) and there is no such antigen as Kell.

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The K1 and K2 antigens were named after two pregnant women -- a Mrs. Kellacher and a Mrs. Cellano -- who were first identified as having developed the corresponding antibodies.  (Apparently Mrs. Kellacher was first in 1946, or we would be calling it the Cellano system.)  Then there's a Mr. Hugh McLeod, who was identified as a K null  in 1961.  Hence the terms McLeod phenotype and McLeod Syndrome, which Henry VIII may have suffered from, along with anyone around him in his later years.

Scott

Edited by SMILLER
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43 minutes ago, SMILLER said:

The K1 and K2 antigens were named after two pregnant women -- a Mrs. Kellacher and a Mrs. Cellano -- who were first identified as having developed the corresponding antibodies.  (Apparently Mrs. Kellacher was first in 1946, or we would be calling it the Cellano system.)  Then there's a Mr. Hugh McLeod, who was identified as a K null  in 1961.  Hence the terms McLeod phenotype and McLeod Syndrome, which Henry VII may have suffered from, along with anyone around him in his later years.

Scott

Sorry Scott, but an awful lot of this is wrong!  Certainly K and k (NOT K1 and K2, as explained above) were named after two pregnant women, and anti-K had primacy over anti-k, but anti-k (as mentioned in both The Blood Group Antigen FactsBook AND Bloody Brilliant!  A History of Blood Groups and Blood Groupers.) the woman involved in the discovery of anti-k was actually named Nocella, rather than Cellano.  Anti-K was described in 1946 in  the paper by Coombs, Mourant and Race that described the Direct Antiglobulin Technique, whereas anti-k was not described until 1949 in a paper by Levine, Backer, Wigod and Ponder.  All of that having been said, the actual first antibody/antigen that was described that is now in the Kell Blood Group System was Levay (now Kpc or KEL21), which was described by Callender, Race and Paykoc in 1945, but, of course, it was not recognised as part of any System at the time, as, for years and years, there was only one known example of anti-Levay, otherwise the Kell Blood Group System would have been called the Levay Blood Group System, and not the Cellano Blood Group System.

Mr Hugh McLeod, a dental student, was not a true Ko (or Kellnull), but had weak expression of Kell Blood Group System antigens.  True, his phenotype was described in 1961 (by Allen, Krabbe and Corcoran), but the true Ko (or Kellnull) phenotype, which, unlike the McLeod phenotype, has no expression of the Kell antigens whatsoever, and which was first described in 1957, just after Allen and Lewis had described anti-Kpa.  Such individuals usually produce an anti-Ku (the "u" standing for universal).

The McLeod phenotype and the McLeod Syndrome are by no mean synonymous.  Indeed, there are three interwoven conditions (for want of a better way of putting it).  There is the McLeod phenotype, as described above, which results in weaken expression of the antigens of the Kell Blood Group System, but such individuals are physically and mentally well.  Then there are individuals who have X-linked Chronic Granulomatous Disease (or CGD), but do not have the McLeod phenotype.  Thirdly, there are individuals who have both the McLeod phenotype and CGD, a condition that is known as the McLeod Syndrome (which is a bit strange, because the first person to be described who had the McLeod phenotype and CGD was actually named Claas).  Both the XK and the X-linked form of CGD are mapped to Xp21.1.

In 2010, a paper was published that suggested that King Henry VIII (not his father King Henry Vii) had McLeod Syndrome (Banks-Whitley C, Kramer K.  A new explanation for the reproductive woes and midlife decline of Henry VIII.  The Histoical Journal 2010; 53 (4): 827-848).  Three years later, A similar paper was published (Stride P, Lopes-Floro K.  Henry VIII, McLeod syndrome and Jacquetta's curse.  J R Coll Physicians Edin 2013; 43: 353-360).  These two papers are perfect examples of a little knowledge being a dangerous thing!!!!!!!!!!!!!

I will be talking about the Kell and Kx Blood Group Systems, and about Henry VIII and CGD in Providence, Rhode Island in May.

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